1. Eating a pre-dawn meal
• All Muslims agree that it is preferred to eat a pre-dawn meal and that there is no sin upon one who does not do so. Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "Eat a pre-dawn meal, for there are blessings in it." This is related by alBukhari and Muslim.
• Al-Miqdam ibn Madyakrib reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "You should eat this pre-dawn meal for it is a blessed nourishment." This is related by an-Nasa'i with a good chain. The reason why it is a blessing is that it strengthens the fasting person, makes him more energetic, and makes the fast easier for him.
• Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah said: "The pre-dawn meal is blessed, so do not neglect it even if you only take a sip of water. Verily, Allah and the angels pray for those who have pre-dawn meals." This is related by Ahmad.
• The time for the pre-dawn meal is between the middle of the night and dawn. It is considered best to delay it (that is, as close to dawn a possible). Zaid ibn Thabit reported: "We ate the pre-dawn meal with the Messenger of Allah and then we got up for the prayer. He was asked: 'What was the amount of time between the two?' He responded: '[The time it would take to recite] fifty verses.' " This is recounted by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
• 'Amr ibn Maimun adds: "The companions of Muhammad, upon whom be peace, would be the first to break the fast and the last to eat their pre-dawn meals." This is recorded by al-Baihaqi with a sahih chain.
2. Supplications while breaking the fast and while fasting
• Ibn Majah related from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'Aas that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said: "A fasting person, upon breaking his fast, has a supplication that will not be rejected. When 'Abdullah broke his fast he would say: "O Allah, I ask of You, by Your mercy that encompasses everything, to forgive me."
• It is confirmed that the Prophet would say: The thirst has gone, the glands are wet and, Allah willing, the reward is confirmed. In mursal form, it is reported that he would say: "O Allah, for You I have fasted and with Your provisions do I break my fast."
3. Refraining from performing any actions that do not befit the fasting
• Fasting is not just refraining from eating and drinking, but it is also refraining from everything else that Allah has forbidden. Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet said: "Fasting is not [abstaining] from eating and drinking only, but also from vain speech and foul language. If one of you is being cursed or annoyed, he should say: "I am fasting, I am fasting." This is related by Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim. The latter said that it is sahih according to Muslim's criterion.
4. Fasting, being generous and studying the Qur'an
• Being generous and studying the Qur'an is recommended during any time, but it is especially stressed during the month of Ramadan.
• Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn 'Abbas said: "The Prophet was the most generous of people, but he would be his most generous during Ramadan when he would meet with [the angel] Gabriel. He would meet with him every night and recite the Qur'an. When Gabriel met him, he used to be more generous than a fast wind."
5. Fasting, striving to perform as many acts of worship as possible during the last ten days of Ramadan
• Al-Bukhari and Muslim record from 'Aishah that during the last ten days of Ramadan, the Messenger of Allah would wake his wives up during the night and then remain apart from them (that is, being busy in acts of worship).
• A version in Muslim states: "He would strive [to do acts of worship] during the last ten days of Ramadan more than he would at any other time." At-Tirmizhi also recorded this from 'Ali.
Matters that breaks one’s fast – The Concise Presentation of the fiqh (Dr Abdul Azeem Badawi)
1. Intentionally eating or drinking
If a person forgetfully eats or drinks, then he does not have to make up the fast nor is there any expiation in his case. Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet s.a.w. said, “Whoever forgets while he is fasting and eats and drinks something should complete his fast, for it was Allah who fed him or gave him to drink”.
2. Vomiting intentionally
If a person is overcome by nausea and vomits, then he does not have to make up the fast nor is there any expiation in his case. Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet s.a.w. said, “One who is overcome by nausea and vomits does not have to make up the day. One who intentionally makes himself vomit must make up the day”.
3. Menstruation and Post-partum bleeding
Even if these occur at the last moment before sundown, they break the fast according to the consensus of the scholars.
4. Sexual Relation
Actions that are permissible for the fasting person:
1. Washing for the sake of cooling
Abu Bakr ibn ‘Abdul Rahman narrated from one of the Companions of the Prophet s.a.w. who said, “I saw the Messenger of Allah s.a.w in al-Arj (a village outside Madinah) pour water over his head while fasting due to thirst or due to the heat”.
2. Rinsing one’s mouth and nose but without putting the water too deep
Laqeet ibn Sabirah narrated that the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. said “(In ablution) you should put water well up your nose, unless you are fasting”.
3. The medical practice of cupping and drawing blood
Ibn Abbas stated, “The Prophet s.a.w. was cupped while he was fasting”. However, this act is disliked for the person who is weak. (Companions) dislike the act of cupping for the fasting person? He replied, “No, unless due to weakness (on the part of the person who would then find difficulty fasting).
4. Kissing or touching one’s spouse for the one who has the ability to control his actions.
Aishah r.a. said, “The Prophet s.a.w. would kiss and caress while fasting. And he was the one who had most control over his desires”.
5. To be in the state of sexual defilement in the morning
Both Aishah and Umm Salamah narrated that it would be Fajr time and the Prophet s.a.w. would be in the state of sexual defilement due to the relations with his family and then he would bathe and fast.
6. Continuing the fast until the pre-dawn meal
Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri narrated that he heard the Messenger of Allah s.a.w. say, “Do not fast without breaking it. But if you insist on continuing the fast”. “O Messenger of Allah s.a.w, but you continue your fast”. He replied, “I am not similar to any of you (on this matter). During the night, I have one who feeds me and gives me drink”.
7. The use of a toothstick, perfume, oil, kohl, eye drops and injections
The basic ruling concerning all of these originally permissible matters is that they are still permissible. If they are forbidden for the fasting person, Allah or his Messenger s.a.w would have clarified that. And Allah s.w.t says (Surah 19, verse 64); “Your Lord is never forgetful”.
Selamat Berpuasa dan Selamat Beribadat.